Lecture (13: Echoes of Divine Calls

Foundations of Faith and Worship

Surat Al-Maidah

The 2nd Sign: Integrity & Divine Calls

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Surat Al-Ma’idah is distinguished within the Quran for its unique emphasis on divine calls to believers, setting a precedent in articulating faith (Aqeedah) and worship (Ibadah) principles. Across the Quran, numerous calls beckon believers towards righteousness, with Surat Al-Baqarah featuring 11 calls, Surat Al-Imran with 7, and Surat Al-Nisa presenting 9. Yet, in Surat Al-Ma’idah, we find an unparalleled concentration of 16 calls, the highest across all chapters, intricately weaving a tapestry of divine guidance that cements the believer’s covenant with Allah. This covenant, a reflection of the universal declaration of faith, lays down the foundational framework for life in devout adherence to the principles of Islam.


Abdullah Ibn Masood, a companion of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), highlighted the profound significance of these calls, advising believers to heed them attentively as pathways to righteousness and safeguards against deviation. Through its distinct calls, Surat Al-Ma’idah emerges as a comprehensive guide, offering clarity on the essentials of Islamic creed and the nuances of divine worship, guiding believers towards a life of integrity and devotion.


This Surah’s intricate detailing of Aqeedah and Ibadah principles not only underscores the believer’s commitment to Allah but also navigates them through the depths of loyalty and disavowal, purity in worship, moderation, and the moral compass required to steer clear of prohibitions like intoxicants and gambling. Through these divine injunctions, Surat Al-Ma’idah stands as a beacon of wisdom, illuminating the path to spiritual elevation and societal harmony, encapsulating the essence of worship beyond ritualistic practices and embedding it into every facet of moral and ethical conduct.


The First Demand: Calls Related to the Belief System (Aqeedah)

In the realm of divine guidance, Allah Almighty’s calls to His servants are fundamentally rooted in the principles of loyalty (Al-Wala) to Him and disavowal (Al-Bara) of all that opposes His commandments. These principles are essential for the believer’s alignment with what brings true happiness, spiritual perfection, and eternal success, or away from paths leading to downfall and suffering in this life and the hereafter. The relationship between the believer and Allah is mutual loyalty; thus, Allah’s allies are safeguarded, supported, and never forsaken or subjected to despair.


Within this context, a focused set of calls is dedicated to reinforcing the doctrine that forms the bedrock of the Muslim community, ensuring its cohesion, and maintaining its moral and spiritual integrity. These calls serve as a reminder that adherence to the Islamic creed isn’t merely a matter of personal salvation but is integral to the collective well-being and resilience of the Muslim ummah. By embracing the Islamic doctrine fully, believers affirm their loyalty to Allah and disavow anything that contradicts their faith, fortifying their souls against transgressions and sins.

This section underscores three pivotal calls, each centered on alerting the believers about the indispensability of doctrine, as it is the cornerstone that holds the community together, ensuring a check and balance within its ranks. Through the observance of these guiding principles of loyalty to Allah and His messenger, and disavowal of anything contrary to Islamic teachings, believers not only navigate their journey towards righteousness but also contribute to the strength and unity of the broader Muslim community. By adhering to the correct Islamic creed and living by Allah’s commands, the believer’s soul is steered towards uprightness, distancing itself from misdeeds and disobedience.


The Call to Monotheism and the Rejection of Polytheism (5:35-40)

Surat Al-Ma’idah, verse 5:35, issues a profound call to believers, urging them to adopt taqwa (consciousness of Allah) and seek means (Wasilah) to draw nearer to Him.


This quest for divine closeness transcends mere ritualistic practices, advocating for a comprehensive engagement with monotheism through recognizing and invoking Allah’s unique names and attributes, committing to righteous deeds, seeking the intercession of the virtuous, and embracing life’s trials as opportunities to demonstrate faith. This approach not only embodies the essence of Tawheed (Monotheism) but also starkly contrasts with the pitfalls of Shirk (Polytheism), where reliance on anything other than Allah for intercession is fundamentally rejected.


Verses 5:36 to 5:40 further delineate the stark realities facing those who persist in disbelief, including polytheists, versus the mercy bestowed upon the repentant.


Verse 5:36 conveys the futility of attempting to ransom oneself from divine retribution with worldly possessions, underscoring the critical need for faith and righteous conduct over material wealth.


Verse 5:37 highlights the endless despair and suffering awaiting disbelievers in the hereafter, emphasizing the severe consequences of rejecting monotheism.


Conversely, Verse 5:38 underscores the societal embodiment of Tawheed through the implementation of Shariah, particularly within the context of penal codes like theft. This verse demonstrates that adherence to monotheism transcends individual belief and extends into the collective application of divine law, establishing justice and deterrence as pillars of societal harmony.


The prescribed punishment for theft serves not merely as a punitive measure but as a manifestation of a society’s commitment to the principles of Tawheed, where the laws of Allah govern not only spiritual acts of worship but also the moral and legal frameworks that uphold social order and equity. This holistic approach to monotheism underscores the inseparable link between faith and the enactment of divine commandments in all aspects of life, showcasing a community’s devotion to Allah’s sovereignty through its justice system.


Verse 5:39 extends an olive branch of hope, illustrating the transformative potential of sincere repentance and good deeds in reclaiming divine favor.


The concluding verse, 5:40, reaffirms Allah’s omnipotence and mercy, offering forgiveness to those who turn back to Him in sincere faith, reinforcing the monotheistic doctrine that Allah alone has the sovereignty to forgive and guide.


This segment of Surat Al-Ma’idah presents a compelling narrative on the essence of Islamic monotheism, contrasting it with the folly of polytheism. It encourages believers to pursue a path of sincere faith and righteousness, underscoring the significance of individual choices and actions within the divine framework of justice and mercy. This discourse vividly outlines the consequences of diverging from the path of monotheism, highlighting the central theme of accountability and the hopeful prospect of redemption through repentance and adherence to divine commands.


Three Divine Calls to Loyalty and Disavowal

The principle of Al-Wala Wal Bara (loyalty to the believers and disavowal of disbelief and its people) epitomizes the practical application of Tawheed, the oneness of Allah. Within this framework, the Quran issues three pivotal calls to the believers regarding loyalty and renunciation, specifically addressing the relationship with the People of the Book in the context of their stance towards Islam.


These divine directives underscore a nuanced approach: believers are cautioned against forming alliances with those among the People of the Book, polytheists, and disbelievers who exhibit hostility towards Islam, either through intellectual opposition or military aggression. This guidance reflects a strategic stance aimed at preserving the integrity and security of the Muslim community against external threats.


Conversely, the Quran also articulates a principle of equitable treatment towards those from the People of the Book who do not bear animosity towards Muslims. Surat Al-Mumtahanah elaborates on this aspect, emphasizing that Allah does not prohibit kindness and justice towards individuals who do not engage in hostility against Muslims. This directive underscores the importance of discernment in relationships, advocating for a balanced approach that harmonizes the principles of Tawheed with ethical conduct and fairness.


Thus, the doctrine of Al-Wala Wal Bara serves as a tangible expression of monotheism, guiding the believers in their interactions and alliances. It calls for a loyalty that is rooted in faith and a renunciation based on the preservation of Islamic principles, all while advocating for justice and benevolence in dealings with those who are peaceful and just.


1.    The Prohibition of Befriending Those Who Oppose Faith (Al-Ma’idah 5:51): Surah Al-Ma’idah (5:51) underscores the Islamic principle of not taking Jews and Christians as protectors or allies. It highlights the importance of Al-Wala (loyalty) to Allah and Al-Bara (disavowal) against those who are hostile to Islamic teachings. This verse, set against the backdrop of historical interactions between Muslims and the People of the Book, stresses the need for Muslims to carefully consider their alliances to ensure they align with those who support Islamic principles.


The guidance provided in this verse, and similar ones, necessitates a nuanced understanding of the relationships between Muslims and non-Muslims. It distinguishes between those from the People of the Book and others who may display hostility toward Islam—whether through military aggression, intellectual disparagement, or Islamophobia—and those who do not. In instances of hostility, Muslims are advised against forming protective alliances, upholding the integrity of the Muslim community and its foundational beliefs.


Conversely, without such hostility, Islam encourages interactions marked by kindness, justice, and fairness. This approach adheres to Islamic values of compassion and equity and serves as an avenue for Dawah, inviting others to understand and potentially embrace Islam through positive engagement. This balanced stance allows Muslims to maintain their faith and principles while engaging constructively with non-Muslims who show respect and openness toward Islam.


Therefore, Surah Al-Ma’idah (5:51) illustrates the delicate balance between maintaining loyalty to Islamic tenets and engaging with the broader non-Muslim community in a respectful, just, and inviting manner. It exemplifies how the principles of loyalty and disavowal are not merely defensive postures but are instrumental in guiding Muslims on navigating interfaith relations with wisdom, compassion, and an unwavering commitment to the principles of Islam.


In addition to the principles outlined in Surah Al-Ma’idah (5:51), verses 52 and 53 delve deeper into the psychological and communal repercussions of forging inappropriate alliances. Verse 52


addresses the internal conflict experienced by those with a “disease” in their hearts — an allusion to hypocrisy. These individuals, driven by fear of worldly loss or disaster, seek the friendship of non-believers, betraying their professed faith. This verse warns of the eventual regret that such individuals will face, highlighting that divine decree cannot be averted through disloyal alliances.


Verse 53 expands on the consequences of hypocrisy by illustrating the reaction of true believers to the hypocrites’ eventual exposure. It underscores the futility of their actions and the ultimate loss they incur—not just materially but spiritually and communally. Their strongest oaths of allegiance to the Muslim community are rendered void by their actions, reflecting the profound betrayal of trust and the detrimental impact on communal harmony and integrity.


These verses serve as a poignant reminder of the importance of sincerity in faith and loyalty. They caution against the temptation to seek protection or alliance out of fear, emphasizing that true security and success lie in unwavering trust in Allah and adherence to His commands. The commentary on these verses reinforces the central theme of Al-Wala (loyalty) and Al-Bara (disavowal) within personal integrity and communal well-being, urging believers to reflect on the depth of their faith and the authenticity of their commitments to the principles of Islam.


2.    Warning Against Apostasy and the Merits of True Believers (Al-Ma’idah 5:54-56) Surah Al-Ma’idah (5:54-56) addresses the critical issues of apostasy and the defining qualities of true believers. It embeds the principles of Al-Wala (loyalty) and Al-Bara (disavowal) within the context of faith and community.


Verses 54 to 56: A Call to Steadfastness and True Belief: Verse 54 serves as a profound reminder of the seriousness of apostasy, cautioning believers against abandoning their faith. It asserts that turning away from Islam to embrace disbelief—whether in the form of Judaism, Christianity, or any other—results not in harm to Allah but in the loss of His grace upon the apostate. Allah promises to replace those who forsake their faith with individuals who are more committed and faithful, emphasizing His sufficiency and the unchanging nature of His divine will.


This passage vividly portrays the characteristics of true believers, who are marked by their humility towards other believers, firmness against disbelievers, and unwavering commitment to the struggle for Allah’s cause. Their devotion is manifested in their adherence to Salat (prayer) and Zakat (almsgiving), aligning their actions with divine commands. This alignment with Allah and His Messenger signifies the true believers as the protectors of the faith, destined for triumph.


The historical context involving the people of Abu Musa al-Ash’ari highlights the broader implications of these verses. Although there wasn’t a direct command for them to combat apostasy alongside Abu Bakr, their readiness to defend the faith in various battles demonstrates the fulfillment of Allah’s promise to replace the apostates with more devout believers. The widespread apostasy among Arab tribes following the Prophet’s death presents a significant test to the early Muslim community. However, the decisive stance taken by Abu Bakr and his

companions, particularly against those who withheld Zakat, showcases the essential application of Al-Wala and Al-Bara in preserving Islamic values and ensuring the community’s integrity.


These verses from Al-Ma’idah offer a comprehensive framework for understanding apostasy and the virtues of true believers, underscoring the importance of loyalty and disavowal as foundational principles for personal faith and communal cohesion. They remind the believers of the enduring relationship with Allah, predicated on obedience, loyalty, and the disavowal of anything opposing His guidance.


3.    Contextualizing Cross-Religion Dynamics (Al-Ma’idah 5:57-66): The verses from Surat Al-Ma’idah (5:57-66) offer profound insights into the dynamics of cross-religion relations from an Islamic perspective. They emphasize a balanced approach rooted in respect, justice, and kindness while also delineating clear boundaries in the face of mockery or hostility toward Islam. This passage reflects the broader Islamic teachings on navigating relationships with non-Muslims, particularly with the People of the Book (Jews and Christians), in a way that upholds the principles of faith without compromising on the core values and teachings of Islam.


The initial verses (57-58) specifically address the believers, cautioning them against taking those who ridicule their religion as protectors. This is not a call for isolation but rather a directive to maintain their faith’s dignity and disengage from relationships that harm their spiritual and communal integrity. The Qur’an recognizes the reality of mockery and disrespect towards Islamic practices, such as the call to prayer, and instructs believers to respond with wisdom rather than retaliation, focusing on preserving their faith and community.


Subsequent verses (59-66) expand on the relationship with the People of the Book, revealing a complex interplay of belief and disbelief and the potential for mutual respect and understanding. These verses critique the actions and attitudes of some among the People of the Book who mock Islamic practices or challenge the believers without just cause.


Yet, the Qur’an also offers a path towards redemption and unity in faith, specifically through the acceptance of Islam, which is presented as the culmination and completion of the revelations already possessed by the People of the Book. This suggests that those who embrace this final message, truly believe, and act righteously will find forgiveness and mercy from Allah. This aspect underscores the inclusivity of the Islamic faith towards previous revelations, asserting that the completion of one’s faith through Islam opens the door to divine mercy and forgiveness.


The Qur’anic guidance in these matters is nuanced and layered. It recognizes the presence of sincere individuals among the People of the Book who might be inclined towards embracing Islam. Consequently, Muslims are urged to treat such individuals with kindness and justice. Simultaneously, the Qur’an cautions against forming alliances with those who overtly resist or ridicule Islam. This dual approach safeguards the spiritual well-being and unity of the Muslim

community, fostering positive and respectful engagements with others, grounded in shared principles and mutual respect.


This teaching is particularly relevant in today’s globalized world, where Muslims interact with a diverse range of cultures and religions. It offers a framework for engaging with others rooted in the Qur’an, promoting a balanced approach that neither compromises on the essentials of faith nor closes the door to positive and constructive interfaith relations.


The Second Demand: Calls Related to Acts of Worship (Ibadat)

Allah would not legislate for His servants something or reveal to them a religion without a purpose and goal. Allah is the most deserving of being exalted above vanity and frivolity, exalted be He. Indeed, the purpose of existence corresponds with the status of its Creator, and Allah is the most just of judges. This necessitates that the objectives behind His creation and legislation are the most sublime and lofty.


In the past, with the emergence of the sciences of jurisprudence, scholars divided the rulings of Islam into two categories: acts of worship and transactions, although everything a believer does, from prayer and rituals to living and dying, is an act of worship to Allah, from the comprehensive and broad perspective of worship. However, this division differentiated between pure acts of worship, where there is no scope for applying reason in understanding the details of their rulings, and transactions, whose meanings and reasons are perceivable in principle and detail.


Thus, the jurisprudence of worship includes practical rulings that organize the relationship of the obligated servant with Allah, such as: purification, prayer, zakat, fasting, and others. Meanwhile, the jurisprudence of transactions encompasses a set of practical Shariah rulings that regulate the obligated individual’s relationship with others, including civil law, family jurisprudence, litigations, penal codes, relationships between the ruler and the ruled, international relations, economic rulings, contracts, and other varied subsidiary topics and rulings.

In Islam, worship (Ibadah) expresses humility, submission, and complete devotion to Allah, encapsulated through acts driven by pure love, fear, and adherence to His commands. Broadly defined, Ibadah spans formal rituals like Prayer, fasting, almsgiving, and pilgrimage but also extends into ethical behaviors and virtues such as honesty, reliability, parental respect, social responsibilities, and moral integrity. This expansive view of worship also includes profound emotions and attitudes towards Allah and His Messenger, peace be upon him, such as love, reverence, repentance, patience, and gratitude, aligning with the divine purpose of human creation to worship Allah alone, as stated in the Quran [Al-Dhariyat: 56].


The essence of Ibadah hinges on two critical principles: sincerity in intention (performing acts solely for Allah’s sake without seeking any worldly recognition) and strict compliance with Shariah (Islamic law). The Quran and Hadith emphasize that only deeds done with a sincere heart, free from any ulterior motives, are accepted by Allah. The Prophet Muhammad’s, peace be upon him, famous hadith, “Actions are but by intention,” further highlights the significance of the motives behind our actions in determining their worth in the sight of Allah.


Furthermore, true worship must adhere to the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah, ensuring that all acts of worship and daily life practices align with divine instructions. This adherence safeguards the believer from innovations in religion and guides them to emulate the exemplary paths of the prophets and their righteous predecessors.


Worship in Islam is not confined to specific rituals. However, it encompasses all aspects of life, offering a holistic approach that transforms everyday activities into acts of devotion when performed in obedience to Allah and for His pleasure. This comprehensive scope of Ibadah underscores the profound relationship between the believer and their Creator, emphasizing that life’s ultimate goal is to worship Allah according to His laws.


The necessity of maintaining sincerity and adhering to Shariah illustrates that acceptable worship in Islam must fulfill these two criteria, fulfilling the purpose of creation and leading to the purification of the soul. This approach ensures compliance with Allah’s commands. It guides the believer towards a successful life here and in the Hereafter, cementing the broad and inclusive definition of worship in Islam as a life entirely devoted to serving and obeying Allah.


Upholding Divine Decrees in Islam: The Sanctity of Worship and Law (5:2-5)

In Surat Al-Ma’idah (The Table Spread), a series of verses profoundly emphasize the sanctity of adhering strictly to what Allah has decreed. They particularly highlight the prohibition against legalizing what Allah has made unlawful and the collective responsibility of Muslims to prevent any transgression of these divine laws. Additionally, a stern warning is issued against the introduction of innovations into Islam, reinforcing the message that the religion has been fully completed and perfected by Allah.


Key Highlights from Surat Al-Ma’idah:

  • Verse 5:2 underscores the crucial importance of not violating Allah’s rights. It calls on believers to observe religious practices as ordained without any deviation, thereby affirming their obedience and cultivating spiritual growth.
  • Divine Law and Belief (5:2): The initial covenant with Allah and His Messenger establishes the sole authority of divine command over what is deemed lawful and unlawful, categorically rejecting any form of innovation in the religion. This covenant fosters a community spirit of mutual support in righteousness and piety while explicitly forbidding assistance in sin.
  • Dietary Regulations (5:3): Explicit instructions are provided regarding lawful and prohibited foods, highlighting the allowance of all animals except those specifically forbidden, such as game, during the pilgrimage. The regulations concerning food consumption provided by the People of the Book are detailed and aim to ensure dietary practices conform to Islamic law.
  • Sacred Symbols and Rituals (5:2): Believers are instructed to respect all sacred symbols, months, and rituals associated with worship. They particularly emphasize the respect due to sacrificial animals and the sacred precincts of pilgrimage, advocating for a harmonious observance of religious duties.
  • Cross-religion Dynamics (5:5): The verses delineate the framework for cross-religion relations and marriages, ensuring that such interactions and unions adhere to Islamic principles and contribute to the preservation of Islamic identity and faith among future generations.


These directives collectively stress the importance of following divine laws across various aspects of life, from worship and dietary regulations to interfaith relations. Surat Al-Ma’idah serves as a comprehensive guide that not only reinforces the completion and perfection of Islam as a religion but also outlines the behavioral and ethical standards expected of believers, ensuring a life lived in sincere adherence to the will of Allah. This approach embodies the essence of worship as defined in Islam. It ensures that the believers’ actions are in harmony with the divine will, thereby achieving the purpose for which humanity was created.


The Call to Worship and the Essence of Purification in Islam (5:6-7)

Within the profound teachings of Islam, the act of worship extends beyond mere rituals, embedding deep spiritual significance in every aspect of devout practice. A pivotal aspect of this devotion is highlighted through the sacred act of ablution (wudu) before Salah (Prayer), as detailed in Surat Al-Ma’idah, verse 5:6. This preparatory act is not just about physical cleanliness but symbolizes the purification of the soul, embodying the believer’s readiness to stand in Allah’s presence. It serves as a physical manifestation of spiritual purification, underlining the importance of cleanliness in Islam, which is intrinsic to bodily purity and worship’s sanctity.


This ablution is further enriched by articulating the universal declaration of faith, underscoring the purification of the heart from Shirk (associating partners with Allah) and instilling Tawheed (the oneness of Allah). The declaration of faith, recited after performing wudu, elevates the believer’s spiritual state, aligning the heart and soul with the worship of Allah alone. It is a reaffirmation of faith that not only purifies the believer from physical impurities but also sanctifies the heart, ensuring that Prayer is performed with a pure and focused mind.


The verses remind the believers of their solemn pledge to Allah—”We hear and we obey.” This declaration, mentioned in verse 5:7, is the epitome of servitude to Allah, embodying the essence of submission that is central to Islamic worship. It signifies the believers’ commitment to follow Allah’s commands with complete obedience, reinforcing the concept of servitude in every aspect of their lives.


The instructions for ablution and the emphasis on cleanliness highlight Allah’s desire for His servants to attain purity. The allowance for Tayammum (dry ablution with clean earth) in the absence of water demonstrates Allah’s mercy, ensuring that the circumstances do not place undue hardship on believers but instead offer a means to maintain purity and continue the practice of Prayer. This flexibility underscores Islam’s practical approach to worship, accommodating the believers’ varying circumstances while preserving the essence of purity.


The call to remember Allah’s favor and the covenant of obedience encapsulates the reciprocal relationship between the Creator and His creation. It reminds us of Allah’s endless mercy and the blessings bestowed upon believers, prompting gratitude and reinforcing the importance of fearing Allah, who is the All-Knower of the secrets of the hearts.

In essence, Islam’s call to worship, highlighted through ablution and Prayer, is a comprehensive approach that integrates physical cleanliness with spiritual purity. It fosters a sense of gratitude, obedience, and a profound awareness of Allah’s omnipresence, guiding believers towards a path of righteousness and divine fulfillment.


The Moderation in Worship: Embracing the Lawful and the Good (5:87-89)

In the early days of Islam, a group among the Prophet Muhammad’s companions took vows that pushed the bounds of asceticism. They pledged to abstain from enjoying lawful and good food, committed to fasting every day, dedicated their nights to Prayer, and even contemplated castration—all to deepen their devotion. However, Allah, the Highest, intervened with a revelation that not only condemned castration as an overstep but also guided the believers back to the path of moderation. This intervention responded to their declarations when they approached the Messenger of Allah, acknowledging their vows. The verses revealed in this context are a testament to the Islamic principle of moderation and the importance of enjoying the lawful pleasures provided by Allah:


Verse 87: “O you who believe! Make not unlawful the Tayyibat (all that is good regarding foods, things, deeds, beliefs, persons, etc.) which Allah has made lawful to you, and transgress not. Verily, Allah does not like the transgressors.”


Verse 88: “And eat of the things which Allah has provided for you, lawful and good, and fear Allah in Whom you believe.” These verses underscore the encouragement to partake in the lawful and good things of life, steering the community away from self-imposed prohibitions that exceed the boundaries set by Allah. They serve as a reminder of the balance that Islam seeks to instill in its followers—between worship and worldly life, asceticism and enjoyment.


Verse 89 addresses oaths taken in haste or without full consideration, providing a means for expiation and forgiveness for unintentional vows while emphasizing the gravity of deliberate oaths. The options for expiation—feeding the poor, clothing them, freeing a slave, or fasting—reflect Islam’s broader social and moral concerns, ensuring that acts of atonement also contribute to community welfare.


This guidance concludes with an admonition to safeguard one’s oaths, underscoring the sanctity of one’s word and demonstrating Allah’s mercy in providing clear pathways for rectification. Through these revelations, Allah clarifies His signs and commands, inviting gratitude and reflection from the believers. This narrative is a powerful illustration of Islam’s balanced approach, advocating for a life that harmoniously blends spiritual devotion with the enjoyment of Allah’s lawful bounties while maintaining a conscientious and responsible attitude towards commitments and vows.


The Islamic Stance on Intoxicants and Gambling (5:90-94)

In Surat Al-Ma’idah, verses 90 to 94, a compelling narrative unfolds, highlighting the Islamic prohibition against intoxicants, gambling, and other practices deemed harmful not only to the individual but also to the societal fabric. These verses serve as a foundational guide, steering believers away from actions that obstruct moral and spiritual growth and urging them toward a life marked by ethical conduct and devotion to Allah.


Verse 5:90 categorically denounces intoxicants, gambling, and other pagan practices as abominations and the handiwork of Satan. This verse is a clear directive for believers to abstain from such vices to achieve success in both this world and the hereafter. The comprehensive prohibition is a preventive measure against the moral and spiritual degradation that these practices invariably lead to.


Verse 5:91 elucidates the rationale behind this prohibition, linking intoxicants and gambling to Satan’s agenda of sowing discord and enmity among believers, distracting them from the remembrance of Allah and the observance of Prayer. This verse underscores the broader social and spiritual repercussions of engaging in such vices, highlighting their destructive potential for communal harmony and individual piety.


Verse 5:92 reinforces the command to obey Allah and His Messenger, emphasizing the importance of heeding divine guidance and maintaining a cautious distance from prohibited practices. It serves as a reminder of the Messenger’s role in conveying the message clearly and the responsibility of believers to heed this message for their guidance.


Verse 5:93 offers reassurance to those who have engaged in these practices in the past, affirming that there is no sin on them if they have repented and adhered to a path of righteousness and good deeds after that. It underscores the principle of divine mercy and forgiveness, encouraging believers to continue their devotion to Allah, fostering a cycle of belief, righteous deeds, and continuous improvement towards excellence (Ihsan) in worship.


Collectively, these verses articulate a clear stance against intoxicants and gambling, framing them as detrimental to the spiritual well-being of individuals and the moral health of society. They outline the harmful consequences of these vices and highlight the importance of obedience, repentance, and the pursuit of righteous deeds. In doing so, Surat Al-Ma’idah provides a comprehensive blueprint for believers, guiding them towards moral integrity, communal harmony, and the attainment of divine favor, emphasizing that success lies in adherence to divine commandments and the continuous striving for moral and spiritual excellence.



As we conclude our exploration of the divine calls within Surat Al-Ma’idah, focusing on the foundational elements of Aqeedah (Belief System) and Ibadah (Acts of Worship), we recognize how deeply these calls are interwoven into the believer’s life, molding their journey of faith and devotion. This chapter, rich with guidance, acts not only as a foundation for understanding the depth of Islamic teachings but also as an invitation for believers to deeply entrench their lives within the framework of divine instructions, mirroring a profound commitment to Allah’s will in every aspect of their existence.


Surat Al-Ma’idah emerges as a pivotal guide, illuminating the path toward embodying righteousness, integrity, and unwavering devotion. By embracing the wisdom laid out in this Surah, believers are equipped with a comprehensive guide to navigate life’s intricacies. They ensure that their deeds and worship are in harmony with divine directives, fostering a society that mirrors Islam’s core values.


This journey through the divine calls of Surat Al-Ma’idah sets the stage for continued exploration into the realms of Akhlaq (Moral Conduct) and Mu’amalat (Business Transactions), as outlined in the subsequent chapter. There, the focus shifts towards further calls to the believers, extending the guidance on living a life that not only adheres to the personal tenets of faith and worship but also encompasses the ethical and communal responsibilities entrusted to them by Allah. This seamless continuation of divine calls underscores the comprehensive nature of Islamic guidance, enveloping every facet of a believer’s life with the light of wisdom and the strength of faith.